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Phantom pain is more common after amputation of a leg or an arm, but can also be experienced after removal of other body parts including the breast after mastectomy or the eye after eye removal (known as enucleation).

Phantom Pain Causes

The exact cause of phantom pain is unknown, but it has been associated with pain experienced prior to amputation, nerve damage, prior arterial blood clot, and neuroma (nerve tumor)

Phantom Pain Treatment

Treatment of phantom pain includes medications and other options. Medications used include:

  • opioids
  • anticonvulsants
  • antidepressants
  • anesthetics
  • and others

Non-pharmacological management measures include:

  • TENS devices
  • acupuncture
  • electroconvulsive therapy